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SOCIAL    AND    POLITICAL    LIFE           175
snow In front of his door, and not bother about the frost on his neighbour's roof." This is not so bad. What is worse is that it makes a man throw his refuse outside his neighbour's door.
The best illustration is the so-called Chinese courtesy, a very misunderstood topic. Chinese courtesy cannot be defined, as Emerson has defined it, as "the happy way of doing things." So much depends on who it is you are doing things with. Is he of your family or a friend of your family? The Chinese have just as much good manners toward people outside their families and friends as the Englishmen in the colonies have toward people outside their race. One Englishman told me that "the good thing is that we are not proud toward ourselves." This seems quite sufficient for the Englishmen, since "ourselves" make the universe. The Chinese are not bad-mannered toward their friends and acquaintances, but beyond that limit the Chinese as a social being is positively hostile toward his neighbour, be he a fellow-passenger in a street car or a neighbour at the theatre-ticket office.
I have seen on a rainy day at a bus station in the inland a fellow-passenger who, in the mad scramble for seats, found himself occupying the driver's seat, and who steadfastly refused to give it up against the entreaty of the station officials. A bit of "social consciousness" might have told him that without the driver no one in the bus could get home, but this spark of social consciousness was lacking. If one analyses still further, was he to blame? Why was there only one bus for about eighty passengers? The local militarist had commandeered the others for transportation purposes. Where, then, was the social consciousness of the militarist? Where system fails, and where men are forced into a mad scramble, all stranded on the road thirty miles away from home on a rainy day and all anxious to get home, what was the occupant of the driver's seat to expect if he gave it up? The case is therefore typical: it shows the maladjustment between the natural rural courtesy of the farmers and the age of speed, the political chaos which hastens individual scramble, and the lack of a tradition, based on a new social consciousness, which must take time to grow up.
This lack of social consciousness explains why all bus companies are losing money and why all mining companies